Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor, English Elizabeth II, Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor) - Queen and Head of State of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and 15 Commonwealth countries - Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, Barbados, Bahamas, Grenada , Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Antigua and Barbuda, Belize, Saint Kitts and Nevis. In all of these countries, except the United Kingdom, she is represented by governors-general appointed by her.
In addition, Elizabeth II also rules the British Overseas Territories, but not as their queen, but as the queen of the United Kingdom.
Chairman of the Commonwealth of Nations, Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces, Lord of the Isle of Man, Supreme Steward of the Church of England, Defender of the Faith, Duke of Normandy.
Formally, Elizabeth II is the most powerful monarch in the world.
Place of Birth. Education. Princess Elizabeth Alexandra Mary was born on April 21, 1926 in the London district of Mayfair at the residence of the Earl of Strathmore at Brewton Street, house number 17 in the family of Prince Albert, Duke of York, and his wife, the Duchess of York (Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, the future Queen Mother) . Her christening in the Music Room at Buckingham Palace was performed by Cosmo Langa, Archbishop of York on May 29 of that year. The princess' godparents were: George V, Queen Mary, Princess Mary, Earl of Strathmore, Duke of Connaught and Lady Elphinstone. She received her names in honor of her mother, Queen Alesandra - her paternal great-grandmother and Queen Mary - grandmother. In the family she was called by an affectionate name "Lilibet» (Lilibet).
As the king's granddaughter in the male line, she received the title of British princess and was called - Her Royal Highness Princess Elizabeth of York. At the time of her birth, she was third in the line of succession to the throne after her uncle Edward, the Prince of Wales and her father, the Duke of York, and her younger brother, the Prince of Wales. At that time, no one considered her a future queen.
She grew up surrounded by the love and care of her family. The future queen was educated at home, mainly with a humanitarian focus. Her governess was Marion Crawford, known as "Crawfie". She studied history under S. G. K. Merten of Eton and studied modern languages, especially French. Religious instruction was provided by the Archbishop of Canterbury.
Heir to the Throne. On December 11, 1936, King Edward VIII abdicated and Elizabeth's father became king, he took the name George VI. Thus, Princess Elizabeth became the heiress presumptive, and if George VI had a son, he would have inherited the throne.
World War II began when Princess Elizabeth was thirteen years old. She and her younger sister Margaret were evacuated to Windsor. Plans were also being made to evacuate the princesses to Canada, but their mother, Queen Elizabeth, is known to have stated: "Children can't go anywhere without me, I will never leave the king, and the king will never leave his country.!». At the time, the Princess was organizing pantomimes with the children of the Royal Household staff at Windsor, and in 1940 she made her first radio address during the BBC Children's Hour, in which she addressed evacuated children. At the age of thirteen, she met Philip Mountbatten, a cadet at the Dortmund Naval School, the son of Prince Andrew of Greece, and fell in love with him. They corresponded constantly during his service in the Royal Navy.
In 1945, Elizabeth was able to persuade her father to allow her to make her direct contribution to the victory. She joined the "Auxiliary Territorial Service" - Women's Self-Defense Squads, where she was known as No. 230873 Lieutenant Elizabeth Windsor, and trained as a driver. She was trained as an ambulance driver and received the military rank of lieutenant. Her military service lasted five months. This was the first time in the history of the royal family that a woman served in a military unit.
Elizabeth made her first foreign visit in 1947, when she visited South Africa with her father. In honor of her coming of age, which came when she was 21 years old, she made a radio address to the commonwealth and empire with the words: "I proclaim before you that all my life, be it long or short, musta be dedicateda serving you and our great imperial seveneto which we all belong".
Ascension to the throne. King George VI, Elizabeth's father, died February 6, 1952. Elizabeth, who at that time was on vacation with her husband in Kenya, was proclaimed Queen of Great Britain.
The coronation ceremony of Queen Elizabeth II took place at Westminster Abbey on June 2, 1953. This was the first televised coronation of a British monarch, and is credited with having contributed significantly to the rise of television broadcasting.
After that, in 1953-1954. The queen made a six-month tour of the Commonwealth, British colonies and other countries of the world. Elizabeth II became the first monarch to visit Australia and New Zealand.
Residence. The Queen's official residence is Buckingham Palace, but she reportedly prefers Windsor Castle. In addition, her residences are the Palace of Holyrood in Edinburgh, Balmoral and Sandringham Palace.
Popularity. Today, the Queen is one of the most popular faces in the UK. According to the latest polls, it is supported by about 80% of citizens. Although Princess Diana's case shook the Queen's popularity and the authority of the monarchy for a while, in the long run, according to public opinion studies, it did not affect her.
Length of reign. From 5:30 pm on September 9, 2015, Elizabeth II became the second longest-reigning monarch in British history. Longer than her, the crown belonged only to Queen Victoria, who ruled the country for 63 years, 226 days, 16 hours and 23 minutes from 1837 to 1901.
Visits. Elizabeth II, maintaining her prestige as the Queen of the Commonwealth, travels very actively in her possessions, and also happens in other countries of the world.
In February 1961, she visited Turkey at the invitation of President Kemal Gürsel, and later India and Pakistan for the first time. Elizabeth II visited most European countries and many non-European ones. In 2011, she became the first British monarch to visit independent Ireland.
She has more than 325 foreign visits to her credit (during her reign, Elizabeth visited more than 130 countries).
role in government. Formally, the Queen has legislative, executive and judicial powers in the states she leads, but in fact her role is rather ceremonial due to the fact that she always acts on the advice of the Cabinet of Ministers, and most often appoints the chairman of the party who wins the election as prime minister. .
British premiers meet with the Queen on a weekly basis, which is taken very seriously. One of the prime ministers even said that he prepares more seriously for meetings with the queen than for parliamentary meetings, because the queen is aware of most issues. In addition, the Queen has regular meetings with other Commonwealth ministers and prime ministers when they are in the UK. Also, during her stay in Scotland, she meets with the First Minister of Scotland. British ministries and diplomatic missions send her regular reports.
Although it is customary that the queen does not interfere in politics, but because during her long reign she had the opportunity to work with many prime ministers and leaders of other countries, her advice is always taken seriously. In her memoirs, Margaret Thatcher wrote about her weekly meetings with Queen Elizabeth: "Everyone who thinks they [встречи] - a mere formality or social convention, deeply mistaken. In fact, they are held in a relaxed business atmosphere, and Her Majesty always demonstrates her ability to cover a wide range of issues and her wide experience.
Awards. Elizabeth II in Great Britain and the Commonwealth countries, as well as in other states, is the head of a number of knightly orders, and also has military ranks, numerous honorary titles, academic degrees. In addition, she is a holder of various domestic British awards, as well as a number of various awards from foreign countries.
Interests. From a young age, Elizabeth was interested in horses and was engaged in horseback riding. She has been faithful to this hobby for many decades. The Queen's interests include dog breeding (including Corgis, Spaniels and Labradors), photography, horseback riding, and travel. I have been gardening since 2009.
Family. At the age of thirteen, she met Philip Mountbatten, a cadet at the Dortmund Naval School, the son of Prince Andrew of Greece, and fell in love with him. They corresponded constantly during his service in the Royal Navy. On the eve of the wedding with the princess, Philip received the title of Duke of Edinburgh. On 20 November 1947, she married the Duke of Edinburgh, Philip (born Prince of Greece and Denmark), who is her fourth cousin (they are both great-great-grandsons of King Christian IX of Denmark) and he is also a great-great-grandson of Queen Victoria. On November 20, 2017, Elizabeth II and Philip celebrated their platinum wedding - 70 years have passed since their marriage. This royal marriage is the longest in world history.
On November 14, 1948, she gave birth to her first child, Prince Charles. Earlier, by a special open letter, the king granted the right to the children of the Duke of Edinburgh and Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh to be called princes. On August 15, 1950, their second child, Princess Anne, was born.
On February 19, 1960, the Queen's third child was born - Prince Andrew, Duke of York, and on March 10, 1964 - Prince Edward, Earl of Essex.
The couple has four children, eight grandchildren and 12 great-grandchildren.
On April 9, 2023, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh passed away at the age of 99.
October 28, 2023